Wu, R., Matta, M., Paulsen, BD., Rivnay, J.,
Operando characterization plays an important role in revealing the structure-property relationships of organic mixed ionic/electronic conductors (OMIECs), enabling the direct observation of dynamic changes during device operation and thus guiding the development of new materials. This review focuses on the application of different operando characterization techniques in the study of OMIECs, highlighting the time-dependent and bias-dependent structure, composition, and morphology information extracted from these techniques. We first illustrate the needs, requirements, and challenges of operando characterization then provide an overview of relevant experimental techniques, including spectroscopy, scattering, microbalance, microprobe, and electron microscopy. We also compare different in silico methods and discuss the interplay of these computational methods with experimental techniques. Finally, we provide an outlook on the future development of operando for OMIEC-based devices and look toward multimodal operando techniques for more comprehensive and accurate description of OMIECs.