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Nonhalogenated Solvent-Processed High-Performance Indoor Photovoltaics Made of New Conjugated Terpolymers with Optimized Monomer Compositions

Park, SH., Kwon, NY., Kim, HJ., Cho, E., Kang, H., Harit, AK., Woo, HY., Yoon, HJ., Cho, MJ., Choi, DH.,
ACS applied materials & interfaces

Abstract

Conjugated random terpolymers, PJ-25, PJ-50, and PJ-75 were successfully synthesized from three different monomers. Fluorine-substituted benzotriazole (2F-BTA) was incorporated into 4,8-bis(4-chlorothiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene (BDT-T-Cl) and a 1,3-bis(4-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)-5,7-bis(2-alkyl)benzo[1,2-c:4,5-c']dithiophene-4,8-dione (BDD)-based alternating copolymer PM7 as a third monomeric unit. The solubility of the random terpolymers in nonhalogenated solvents increased with the number of 2F-BTA units in PM7. The random terpolymers were mixed with 3,9-bis(2-methylene-((3-(1,1-dicyanomethylene)-6,7-difluoro)-indanone))-5,5,11,11-tetrakis(4-hexylphenyl)-dithieno[2,3-d:2',3'-d']-s-indaceno[1,2-b:5,6-b']dithiophene (IT-4F) to fabricate organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. Among the three terpolymers and two related binary copolymers (e.g., PM7 and J52-Cl), outdoor photovoltaic (PV) cells (AM 1.5G) based on the PJ-50:IT-4F blend showed a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.34%. In addition, PJ-50 was employed as a donor in indoor PV (IPV) cells and was blended with nonfullerene acceptors, which have different absorption ranges. Among them, the PJ-50:IT-4F-based IPV device had the highest PCE of 17.41% with a Jsc of 54.75 μA cm-2 and an FF of 0.77 under 160 μW cm-2 light-emitting diode (LED) light. The terpolymer introduced in this study can be regarded as a promising material for the fabrication of outdoor PV and IPV cells with excellent performance involving the use of an eco-friendly solvent.

DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c22946