Near-Field Characterization of Graphene Plasmons by Photo-Induced Force Microscopy

Liu, J., Park, S., Nowak, D., Tian, M., Wu, Y., Long, H., Wang, K., Wang, B., Lu, P.
Laser & Photonics Reviews

Abstract

The near‐field features of graphene plasmons (GPs) using a recently developed photo‐induced force microscopy (PiFM) technique are characterized here. The GPs are excited by a mid‐infrared laser beam obliquely incident on graphene suspended over a metallic grating with a dielectric spacer. The PiFM records the optical force yielded by the interaction between the electric field of GPs in the normal direction and dipoles in a metallic tip. The magnitude of the optical force is proportional to the field intensity of the GPs. By detecting the interference pattern of GPs on the grating trenches, the wavelength and propagation distance of GPs can be obtained. The PiFM technique demonstrated here provides a powerful tool to precisely characterize GPs in a deeply subwavelength scale and aid in the design of nanoscale optical devices based on graphene.

DOI: 10.1002/lpor.201800040