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Control of aggregated structure of photovoltaic polymers for high‐efficiency solar cells
Gao, M., Wang, W., Hou, J., Ye, L.,
π-Conjugated organic/polymer materials-based solar cells have attracted tremendous research interest in the fields of chemistry, physics, materials science, and energy science. To date, the best-performance polymer solar cells (PSCs) have achieved power conversion efficiencies exceeding 18%, mostly driven by the molecular design and device structure optimization of the photovoltaic materials. This review article provides a comprehensive overview of the key advances and current status in aggregated structure research of PSCs. Here, we start by providing a brief tutorial on the aggregated structure of photovoltaic polymers. The characteristic parameters at different length scales and the associated characterization techniques are overviewed. Subsequently, a variety of effective strategies to control the aggregated structure of photovoltaic polymers are discussed for polymer:fullerene solar cells and polymer:nonfullerene small molecule solar cells. Particularly, the control strategies for achieving record efficiencies in each type of PSCs are highlighted. More importantly, the in-depth structure–performance relationships are demonstrated with selected examples. Finally, future challenges and research prospects on understanding and optimizing the aggregated structure of photovoltaic polymers and their blends are provided.